Panáti, their own name). A Shoshonean tribe
whose habitat previous to being gathered on
reservations can not be definitely outlined.
There were two geographic divisions, but
references to the Bannock do not always note
this distinction. The home of the chief
division appears to have been south east
Idaho, whence they ranged into west Wyoming.
The country actually claimed by the chief of
this southern division, which seems to have
been recognized by the treaty of Ft Bridger,
July 3, 1868, lay between lat. 42° and 45°,
and between long. 113° and the main chain of
the Rocky Mountains. It separated the
Wihinasht Shoshoni of west Idaho from the
so-called Washaki band of Shoshoni of west
Wyoming. They were found in this region in
1859, and they asserted that this had been
their home in the past. Bridger (Ind. Aft.
Rep., 363, 1859) had known them in this
region as early as 1829. Bonneville found
them in 1833 on Portneuf River, immediately
north of the present Ft Hall reservation.
Many of this division affiliated with the
Washaki Shoshoni, and by 1859 had
extensively intermarried with them.
At Fort Bridger,
Utah, on July 3, 1868, there was a treaty
entered into between the United States and
the Shoshone (eastern band) and Bannocks
tribes, in which they were promised a
reservation which was, to embrace a
reasonable portion of the Port Neuf valley
and Kansas prairie, but the facts are that
the Indians understood that they were to
have the Port Neuf country and Camas
prairie. There is not and never has been any
place in this section known as Kansas
prairie. It is quite evident that those
representing the government at this treaty
wore not familiar with the geographical lay
of the country, and supposed that the two
sections mentioned were adjacent, when in
fact they are separated by more than 100
miles. Be this as it may, this little
misunderstanding or blunder was a bone of
contention on the part of the Indians who
visited Camas prairie about the 1st of June
each year, remaining there for a month or
more, during which time the squaws gathered
and dried a supply of roots for winter use,
while the men gambled, raced horses, and
traded with the Umatillas, Nez Perces,
Piutes, Sheepeaters, and other tribes and
bands of Indians that were wont to meet
there each season for the same purpose.
As the country became more thickly settled
by white people the prairie proved not only
an excellent field for stock grazing, but
also a fine place for hogs, which would
thrive and fatten on the roots that from
time immemorial had formed a good part of
the Indian's winter food. Bad blood sprang
up between the stock and hog men and the
Indians, which culminated, in the summer of
1878, in the massacre of the white settlers,
the Indians regarding them as intruders. The
question of ownership then received an
arbitrary settlement by the government in
favor of the white people. The soil is now
the home of thousands of farmers, The Camas
stick has been superseded by the
self-binder. This appears to the Indians as
a great injustice
Idaho Indians in the 1890 Census
1878 Bannock War at Camas Prairie.
Sometimes referred to as Kansas. It was "the
straw which broke the camel's back."
Rebellion against starvation and broken
promises. Last battle with the whiteman.
1880 Agreement with Shoshone-Bannocks
to cede southern portion of reservation and
to accept the Lemhi, if they agree to move.
Treaty signed May 14.
1881 Shoshone-Bannocks ratify
agreement of May 14, 1880.
1882 First Indian police force of
eight men organized.
1883 Fort Hall Military post closed.
1885 Major Crimes Act. This act
allowed certain crimes committed within
tribal jurisdiction to be tried in federal
courts (murder, rape, robbery, etc.).
1887 General Allotment Act (Dawes)
alloted 160 acres to each head of household
and 40 acres to each minor. This bill opened
surplus lands to white settlers. Indians
protested, but to no avail.
1888 Pocatello townsite cession and
compensation to the Shoshone-Bannocks for
1878 right-of-way. The purpose of the
townsite cession was to remove white people
from Indian land, and to "...maintain the
reservation free of whites so as not to
interfere with the Indian control of the
reservation." The townsite cession was 1,840
1888 Tribal Court established.
1889 Treaty received governmental
approval on February 23. In 1889, there were
315 Shoshones, 108 Sheepeaters, and 89
1890 Wounded Knee Massacre of the
Sioux--200 women, old men, and children were
slaughtered. It was considered the avenge of
1891 Amendment to the Dawes Act. It
provided 80 acres of agricultural land and
160 acres of grazing land to each Indian.
1892 Congress passed a special act to
grant Chief Tendoy a pension of $15.00 a
month for surrendering lands and dealing
honestly with the whites.
1893 Pension was almost taken away
because Chief Tendoy freed some Indians whom
George Monk, a Lemhi agent, had imprisoned.
1896 Three commissioners were
appointed by Congress to deal with the
Indians for more of their land.
1898 The three commissioners reported
that an agreement was made with the Indians
for the sale of 418,560 acres. They paid
$1.25 an acre.
1900 President signed the Fort Hall
cession of lands on June 6. The
Shoshone-Bannocks were compensated $600,000.
An amount of $75,000 was used for a school
building. Article IV of the agreement
provides that "So long as any of the lands
ceded, granted and relinquished under this
treaty remain part of the public domain,
Indians belonging to the above-mentioned
tribes, and living on the reduced
reservation shall have the right, without
any charge therefore, to cut timber for
their own use, but not for sale, and to
pasture their livestock on said public land,
and to hunt thereon and to fish in the
1902 President Theodore Roosevelt
signed proclamation opening ceded portion of
1975 P.L. 93-638--Indians
Self-Determination and Education Assistance
Act. It provided maximum Indian
participation in the government and
education of the Indian people; to provide
for the full participation of Indian tribes
in programs and services conducted by the
Federal Government for Indians and to
encourage the development of human resources
of the Indian people; to establish a program
of assistance to upgrade Indian education;
to support the right of Indian citizens to
control their own educational activities and
for other purposes. Tribes were allowed to
contract federal programs and the money was
given directly to them.
1976 Land Use Ordinance (Zoning)--The
Secretary of Interior approved the Ordinance
S4-75 for the Shoshone-Bannock Land Use
Policy Ordinance. The purpose of the
ordinance was 1) to protect the present
character of the Fort Hall Reservation, 2)
to insure clean air and water, open space
and a quality human environment, 3) to
reduce congestion, and 4) to promote the
orderly and economic growth of the Fort Hall
Reservation and the peace, safety, morals,
and general welfare of the inhabitants of
the Fort Hall Reservation.
1978 The Indian Child Welfare Act--It
was passed on November 8. The purpose of the
Act was to protect the best interests of
Indian children, and to promote the
stability and security of Indian tribes and
1978 Oliphant Decision--March 6. The
Court held that Indian tribes do not possess
power to try non-Indian criminal violators
of tribal law in tribal court.
1984 Liquor enacted by
Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Business Council.
1985 Changes made to Constitution
allowing reservation-wide voting and a
primary election prior to the general
taken from Idaho Indians Tribal Histories,
Idaho Centennial Commission and the Idaho
Museum of Natural History, 1992 reprint.